1956 - today Independence and establishment of the Republic of Sudan
Colonial Period 1896-1953 Anglo-Egyptian treaty establishing condominium over the Sudan
Islamic Period 1317-1885

Forced conversion of the Kingdom of Dongola to Islam

Incorporation into the Ottoman Empire

Mediaeval Period 640-1323 Christian kingdom of Makuria



400-600 Several regional powers
Meroitic Period

400 B.C.-

400 A.D.

Political centre moved to Meroe

Continuation of constructions at Tabo and Dukki Gel

Occupation of the western cemetery




Kings from Napata

Restorations and constructions at Dukki Gel and Tabo

Expansion of the western cemetery at Kerma

Nubian Pharaohs 713-656 Twenty-fifth Dynasty rules over a territory encompassing Egypt and Sudan
Dark Ages 1080-730 Withdrawal of Egyptian authority. Period poorly documented




Conquest of Nubia by Egyptian pharaohs of the New Kingdom

Destruction of the city of Kerma and foundation of Dukki Gel.

Classic Kerma 1750-1480

Expansion of the city and the defence system. Temples (deffufa) and royal tombs.

Middle Kerma 2050-1750 Erection of fortified walls. Palaces and princely tombs.
Early Kerma 2450-2050

Foundation of the city

Development of the religious quarter and the eastern necropolis

Pre-Kerma 3200-2500

Several settlements, including a proto-urban agglomeration on the site of the eastern necropolis

Neolithic   4700-4300 First villages of stock breeders on the site of the eastern necropolis
5000-4000 Cemeteries at Kadruka
6000-5500 Cemeteries at el-Barga
7200-6500 Settlements and tombs at Wadi el-Arab
Epipalaeolithic  7500-7000 Settlements and cemeteries at el-Barga
8300-7800 Settlements at Busharia
Middle Palaeolithic 200,000-35,000 Evidence of occupation and knapping workshops at the summit of volcanoes
Acheulian 500,000-200,000 Evidence of occupation
Lower Palaeolithic 1,000,000-500,000 Camp remains at Kaddanarti and Kabrinarti